Bola de Neve, Switching gears? Towards an Inclusive Framework for Slum Upgrading in Cazenga and Sambizanga

In Luanda a slum upgrading scheme sees residents temporarily relocated to provisional housing to facilitate redevelopment of their settlements.

Cities as growth poles: the case of Angola

Angola’s development policy is centred on the idea of creating a network of growth poles. But the focus on ‘hard infrastructure’ in a country where rates of poverty, inequality, and unemployment are high is inadequate to meet the country’s development needs.

The Modernist Project in Luanda

Urban development in Luanda has taken a modernist slant, reminiscent of the late modernist principles of post-industrial Europe. Technocrats, politicians, urban planners and a bevy of international consultants are spearheading such visions, as they appear to be seeking some form of modernist urban progression that demonstrates Luanda’s status as an international economic engine and showcase.