Cities and Biodiversity Outlook —Action and Policy


CBO – Action and Policy provides the summary of a global assessment of the links between urbanization, biodi- versity, and ecosystem services. Drawing on contributions from more than 120 scientists and policy-makers from around the world, it summarizes how urbanization affects biodiversity and ecosystem services and pres- ents 10 key messages for strengthening conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in an urban context. It also showcases best practices and lessons learned, and provides information on how to incorpo- rate the topics of biodiversity and ecosystem services into urban agendas and policies. CBO – Action and Policy emphasize challenges and opportunities in rapidly urbanizing developing countries. A workshop in Cape Town in February 2012 was specifically organized to bring together urban planners, policymakers and scientists from many different African countries to inform about current and future urban developments in Africa.The Aichi Biodiversity Targets (see Appendix 1) highlighted throughout the key messages reinforce the mission of the CBD’s Strategic Plan to “take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity.”

This volume was developed in parallel with and builds upon the more detailed scientific analysis and assessment titled Global Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Ecosystems – Challenges and Opportunities, scheduled to be published in 2013. Both publications are a collaborative effort of the CBD and the Stockholm Resilience Centre of Stockholm University, with significant input from ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability.

The material reviewed here is evidence-based, tested, and in the public domain. For ease of readability, refer- ences are limited. A more complete list of references along with a glossary will be found in the scientific analysis and assessment (core chapters available at

Modeled upon the CBD’s flagship publication, Global Biodiversity Outlook, the production of CBO – Action and Policy has been highly inclusive. Two separate drafts were widely circulated for review before publication. An Inter-Agency Task-Force and an Advisory Group (see p. 62), as well as the Global Partnership on Local and Sub-National Action for Biodiversity, provided valuable oversight of the entire process.

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Publication Type Report
Year 2012
Author(s) Elmqvist T, Campbell K, Chan L, Custot J, Katti M, Mader A, Persic A, de Oliveira J P, Rudd A
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