The Urban Transition In Ghana: Urbanization, National Development and Poverty Reduction

The first point to note is that the intensive urbanization of the industrial nations which occurred in the past is currently under way in today’s developing countries. Although the rate of urbanization in the developing world is proceeding at a fairly comparable rate as that of the industrial nations in the heyday of their rapid urbanization, the rate of population growth of cities in developing countries as distinct from urbanization is rather unprecedented (Songsore,2003a ;Davis, 1967;Satterthwaite,1996; Preston, 1979). In 2008, for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population,3.3 billion people, are living in…

Crime and Violence Trends in Nairobi, Kenya

This paper examines the phenomenon of youth crime in Nairobi especially in relation to youth gangs. The case pays special attention to the Mungiki movement and street families. It also examines some of the organized responses to crime of this nature. As the administrative, political and commercial capital of Kenya, Nairobi is a significant trendsetter in the country. The city holds approximately 3 million residents, 10% of the Kenyan population. An additional 1.5 million persons…

The case of Abidjan, Ivory Coast

This report is part of a set of studies of slum conditions, policies and strategies, commissioned and compiled in preparation for the United Nations Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 – The Challenge of Slums. The case study cities were selected by an expert group assembled by UN-Habitat to design and prepare the first draft of the Global Report in January 2002. Care was taken to achieve a representative geographical distribution, a spread of city sizes and ‘levels of development’. The availability…

Street trading in Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality: Realities and challenges

South Africa’s informal sector is growing in line with the rate of unemployment, as people seek ways to sustain themselves. People resort to this sector because the barriers to entry and the technical expertise needed to run an informal business are minimal. It is a sector of concern to the government as scholars acknowledge the existence of the informal traders, and a fight to integrate them with the formal business stream has ensued. This document reports the findings of a research study on informal/ street traders in…

Incrementally Securing Tenure: An Approach for Informal Settlement Upgrading in South Africa

Informal urban land markets are operating in the parts of our cities in which poorer people live. Although they function well in the short term and provide access to land, their effectiveness is limited, including locking poor people into marginal locations. Urban LandMark advocates opening up more officially recognised channels of land supply as a primary means for improving the pro-poor functioning of urban land markets. Increased tenure security in informal settlements is the first step towards official recognition. Once greater tenure security…

An urban slice of pie: the Prevention of Illegal Eviction from and Unlawful Occupation of Land Act in South Africa

Security of tenure had very little meaning for the vast majority of South Africans as Nelson Mandela walked out of Pollsmoor prison. Told what citizenship to have by apartheid, where to live by the Group Areas Act, liable to eviction at the whim of any landlord or security force and easily arrested for trespass, black South Africans faced often insurmountable legal obstacles in establishing their right to occupy their own land. outh Africans also found that their recently bought houses could easily be attached and sold by mortgage holders…