• Globalization and social exclusion in cities: framing the debate with lessons from Africa and Asia

    This paper considers the contradictory roles demanded of city governments as they seek to keep their cities competitive in an increasingly globalized world economy while also having increasing responsibilities for addressing social problems, and making local economic development less exclusionary. After reviewing debates on globalization, social exclusion and their interconnections, the paper discusses the impact of globalization on the sweepers in Faisalabad (Pakistan) and on livelihoods in Johannesburg…

  • Kinshasa: An Urban Elite Considers City, Nation And State

    The declining salience of the nation state has led to an interest in whether other socially constructed forms, such as the city, have replaced it as a source of accumulation, belief and identity. This article seeks to explore whether this is true in the case of the capital of one of Africa’s least successful states, Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). A survey explored the views towards the city of Kinshasa on the past of a variety of middle-class professional people as potential leaders in different occupations resident in different quarters of the city with roots in different parts of the DRC. Despite their…

  • Vulnerability of Poor Urban Coastal Communities to Flooding in Lagos, Nigeria

    This paper considers the risks from and vulnerabilities to flooding in four urban poor communities close to the coast in Lagos, Nigeria. Drawing on interviews with inhabitants and key informants and also on group discussions, it documents the scale and frequency of flooding in these settlements and the impacts, as well as the individual, household and community responses. It also considers the factors that have contributed to increasing flood risks in Lagos, including the uncontrolled expansion of the built-up area, the lack of infrastructure and the failure not only to expand stormwater drainage but also…

  • Effective Crime Prevention in Durban, South Africa

    South Africa has experienced soaring crime levels during the last years of apartheid, which continue unabated into the ten years of democracy. Durban, the largest city in the KwaZulu-Natal province, has increased by 15% between 2001/2002 and 2004/2005, with more than 190 000 cases of crime between 2004/2005. The city officials have therefore forged development negotiations, peace pacts and partnerships that have come about as mechanisms to prevent crime in Durban. This has been facilitated…

  • Planning Education in Ghana

    This case study is a contribution to the Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 chapter on planning education with the objective of assessing the capacity of planning education to respond to the changing needs of the country. The paper discusses the origins of planning education in Ghana and the various theoretical debates that have shaped planning to the point as it is taught and practiced today. The Ghana case study illustrates the legacy of colonial planning education…

  • Building Urban Safety through Slum Upgrading

    Excluded from the city’s opportunities, physically, politically and economically marginalized, slum dwellers are particularly vulnerable to crime and violence. They face an acute risk of becoming victims or offenders and live in a state of constant insecurity. Only a few cities have incorporated a coherent component to prevent crime and mitigate violence in their urban development agendas. Impact on urban safety has occurred somewhat unexpectedly. That is the main lesson to be drawn from the pages of this book: urban policy integration. “Among the several forms of…

  • The Analysis of Urban Poverty in Ethiopia

    This paper analyses urban poverty in Ethiopia using two rounds of household survey data from the Ethiopian Urban Household survey. Poverty estimates are provided to highlight the degree of deprivation experienced by urban Ethiopians. The results show that the incidence of urban poverty is high with a head count index of 41 percent in 1994 and 43 percent in 2000. The results from the decomposition of poverty into growth and inequality effects confirm that…

  • Urban Fortresses: Gated communities as a reaction to crime

    One of the consequences of the state’s inability to protect the life and property of all its citizens—especially in developing countries—is the formation of private alternatives to crime prevention and control. Gated communities, or enclosed neighbourhoods, are one such popular alternative. This article compares the phenomenon of gated communities in two developing countries: South Africa and Brazil. Both countries are plagued by violent crime and share…

  • The Urban Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction

    This paper challenges several common myths that cloud discourse about urban development in Africa. It finds that urbanization in the region is not excessive or imbalanced relative to the experience of other regions. Internal migration, which is not the main source of urban growth, does not account for urban poverty. Migration appears favorable on balance for sending and receiving areas, and population mobility benefits rural and urban households as many retain a foothold in both…

  • Provision of ARVs in a resource-poor setting: Kibera Slum, Kenya

    Kenya is one of Africa’s largest informal settlements. Health indicators are extremely poor and HIV prevalence is estimated at 20%, almost twice the national average. Despite ARV drugs being made available in a pilot programme implemented by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) and Centre for Disease Control (CDC), enrolment rates into the programme have been very low raising questions about strategies for providing ARV in resource-poor settings. Description: Since 1998 AMREF has been implementing a community-based health care project …

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